2009-02-22

[文摘] 哺乳動物視網膜受損的神經再生

SkyOrggLee 報導

研究人員發現在小鼠的視網膜神經可以再生,這是第一篇關於哺乳動物上看到視網膜受傷後,也有神經再生的報導。

過去已經有許多研究發現在青蛙(兩生類)、魚類、鳥類的視網膜神經受損後可以再生,但此篇報導是第一次證實在哺乳動物上也有視網膜神經再生的能力,研究人員在小鼠的眼球以玻璃體腔內注射NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid)的方式,來造成人工的視網膜上神經節(Retinal Ganglion Cells)死亡,研究人員同時發現在視網膜受損後,Müller glia會再重新分化,長出新的桿狀(rod cell)神經細胞。

此研究如果將來直接在活體動物上看到相同的結果,將有助於未來對青光眼的治療上。

原始論文摘要:

Stimulation of neural regeneration in the mouse retina

  1. Mike O. Karla
  2. Susan Hayesa
  3. Branden R. Nelsona
  4. Kristine Tana
  5. Brian Buckinghamb, and 
  6. Thomas A. Reha,1

+Author Affiliations

  1. aDepartment of Biological Structure, and
  2. bMedical Science Training Program, 357420 Health Science Center, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195
  1. Edited by Fred H. Gage, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, San Diego, CA, and approved October 20, 2008 (received for review August 1, 2008)

Abstract

Müller glia can serve as a source of new neurons after retinal damage in both fish and birds. Investigations of regeneration in the mammalian retina in vitro have provided some evidence that Müller glia can proliferate after retinal damage and generate new rods; however, the evidence that this occurs in vivo is not conclusive. We have investigated whether Müller glia have the potential to generate neurons in the mouse retina in vivo by eliminating ganglion and amacrine cells with intraocular NMDA injections and stimulating Müller glial to re-enter the mitotic cycle by treatment with specific growth factors. The proliferating Müller glia dedifferentiate and a subset of these cells differentiated into amacrine cells, as defined by the expression of amacrine cell-specific markers Calretinin, NeuN, Prox1, and GAD67-GFP. These results show for the first time that the mammalian retina has the potential to regenerate inner retinal neurons in vivo.

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