之前IBM研發28奈米製程技術，已經非常不容易了，在大部份的微晶片技術在45奈米左右，最小可以到22奈米，但現在IBM與加州理工學院(California Institution of Technology)合作，開發另一項DNA微晶片技術，將奈米微晶片的精細提升到6奈米的境界。
Published online: 16 August 2009 | doi:10.1038/nnano.2009.220
Placement and orientation of individual DNA shapes on lithographically patterned surfaces
Ryan J. Kershner1,4, Luisa D. Bozano1, Christine M. Micheel1,4, Albert M. Hung1,4, Ann R. Fornof1,4, Jennifer N. Cha1,4, Charles T. Rettner1, Marco Bersani1,4, Jane Frommer1, Paul W. K. Rothemund2 & Gregory M. Wallraff1
Artificial DNA nanostructures1, 2 show promise for the organization of functional materials3, 4 to create nanoelectronic5 or nano-optical devices. DNA origami, in which a long single strand of DNA is folded into a shape using shorter 'staple strands'6, can display 6-nm-resolution patterns of binding sites, in principle allowing complex arrangements of carbon nanotubes, silicon nanowires, or quantum dots. However, DNA origami are synthesized in solution and uncontrolled deposition results in random arrangements; this makes it difficult to measure the properties of attached nanodevices or to integrate them with conventionally fabricated microcircuitry. Here we describe the use of electron-beam lithography and dry oxidative etching to create DNA origami-shaped binding sites on technologically useful materials, such as SiO2 and diamond-like carbon. In buffer with 100 mM MgCl2, DNA origami bind with high selectivity and good orientation: 70–95% of sites have individual origami aligned with an angular dispersion (1 s.d.) as low as 10° (on diamond-like carbon) or 20° (on SiO2).
之前就有 paper 說在人類，程度接近的隊伍，穿紅的比較容易贏球。Hill, R. and Barton, R. Nature, 435, 293 (2005)
作者試著繁殖，紅頭或黑頭的雀鳥 (雀鳥在成年之前都是灰頭的，成年之後頭才會有紅色或黑色)，有些組爸媽的顏色跟小朋友不一樣，有些組是一樣的，有些比較大隻、有些比較小隻，在成長過程讓小朋友們知道他們打架打贏的情況是跟頭的顏色沒關係 (就還是跟體型比較有關係)。所以啦，他們的成長過程並沒有恐嚇他們紅色比較容易贏，他們知道打不打得贏跟頭的顏色沒關係，也沒有爸媽一定是什麼顏色的影響。
而且小鳥看到 紅頭的對手就會開始緊張... (他們去測荷爾蒙)。
Is red an innate or learned signal of aggression and intimidation?
Sarah R. Pryke
Department of Brain, Behaviour and Evolution, Macquarie University, Australia
Red coloration has been associated with dominance and aggression in a number of animals. However, it is unclear whether the increased aggression of red individuals or the avoidance of red opponents is an intrinsic or learnt response. By experimentally controlling for genetic and environmental effects, I tested for innate competitive differences and red-enhanced contest success in sexually immature (uncoloured) red and black head colour morphs of the Gouldian finch, Erythrura gouldiae. Despite juveniles being reared by foster parents of the same and different colour morphs, there were no differences in competitive abilities between uncoloured red and black males. However, when I experimentally added a red head mask to uncoloured males, red (but not black and novel blue coloration) was associated with winning contests, irrespective of an individual's underlying genetics or postindependence social experience. In addition, uncoloured opponents expressed higher stress responses (corticosterone) and avoided conflicts with red-painted competitors. The association between red coloration and aggression may be an innate response to aid facultative fight or submissive decisions, and adds to growing evidence suggesting that red coloration may be a general signal of intimidation.